A Revolta da Chibata – ‘The Revolt of the Lash’, November 22nd 1910

On this day 100 years ago, 22nd November 1910, sailors on board the Brazilian battleship, Minas Gerais, mutinied and took control of their ship. So, you might reasonably ask, what has that got to do with Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums? Well, four ships took part in the revolt of which Minas Gerais, and the light cruiser, Bahia, were both built by Armstrong Whitworth at Elswick (a district of Newcastle) on the River Tyne. At the time Minas Gerais was the most powerful dreadnought battleship in the world and Bahia was the fastest cruiser.
Artist’s impression of ‘Minas Gerais’ on the launch card

Artist’s impression of ‘Minas Gerais’ on the launch card

The revolt was so serious because of the huge destructive power that would have been unleashed if Minas Gerais had fired her broadside of ten 12 inch guns at Rio de Janeiro. The crews of both Minas Gerais and Bahia had been sent to Newcastle to learn how to operate their ships and then to sail them back to Brazil. It is believed that the men’s experience on Tyneside, including their exposure to trade unionism, may have influenced their decision to revolt. After fitting out and sea trials both ships sailed for Brazil early in 1910.

Minas Gerais firing a broadside of her 12 inch guns

Minas Gerais firing a broadside of her 12 inch guns

Leaving aside the Newcastle connection the mutiny itself is of great interest. A large proportion of ordinary Brazilian sailors were black and were either freed slaves or more often the sons of freed slaves – slavery was only made illegal in Brazil in 1888. They were badly treated, not able to become officers, badly paid and badly fed. They were also subject to severe punishment floggings, even though this form of punishment was illegal.

Some months after the ships returned to Brazil the crew of the Minas Gerais mutinied following a particularly brutal flogging of a black sailor on November 22nd 1910. They were quickly joined by the crews of the Bahia and two other ships. The mutineers were led by an experienced and clearly charismatic black sailor, Joao Candido, who the press named ‘The Black Admiral’. He ordered normal drills to be continued and threw all supplies of alcohol overboard. The mutineers demanded better pay and conditions and the end to flogging. They backed up their claims with a threat to shell Rio de Janeiro. As the ships moved through Guanabara Bay on the morning of the 23rd November they discharged their 4.7 inch guns as a signal that the revolt had begun.

One of the 4.7 inch guns on the museum’s model of Bahia

One of the 4.7 inch guns on the museum’s model of Bahia

 

The government gave in after a few days and granted the rebellious sailors amnesty. However it did not take long before the rebels were being persecuted, forced out of the Navy, imprisoned and even killed.

Joao Candido (fourth from left) with reporters, officers and sailors on the battleship, Minas Gerais, 26 November 1910, the final day of the mutiny

Joao Candido (fourth from left) with reporters, officers and sailors on the battleship, Minas Gerais, 26 November 1910, the final day of the mutiny

Less than a month after the revolt Candido was imprisoned in a small cell with 17 other sailors. Only he and one other man survived the first weekend of confinement. He was later sent to a mental hospital before spending the next 40 years working as a fish market porter. Two years ago a statue of him was erected on the waterfront in Rio.

So today I salute Joao Candido and his comrades, who, 100 years ago today, threatened to use the most mighty instruments of war to pursue just treatment and the end to flogging.

5 Responses to A Revolta da Chibata – ‘The Revolt of the Lash’, November 22nd 1910

  1. giftbafbo says:

    “Only he and one other man survived the first weekend of confinement. He was later sent to a mental hospital before spending the next 40 years working as a fish market porter. Two years ago a statue of him was erected on the waterfront in Rio.”
    Where I have been able to read about it?

    • Ian Whitehead says:

      Hi

      I’m not quite sure what you are after but here goes. The source I mostly used is a paper by Zachary R Morgan, ‘The Revolt of the Lash 1910’ in ‘Naval Mutinies of the Twentieth Century’ edited by Christopher Bell and Bruce Elleman. The classic work that everybody refers to is ‘A Revolta da Chibata’ by Edmar Morel (1959) and that has been republished recently but it is in Portugese and I haven’t read it. There is quite a lot of other material about this mutiny and Joao Candido on the web so that is worth a trawl if you haven’t already done so. The statue is shown at http://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=26028.

      I know that Zach Morgan is writing a book about the revolt so look out for that when it appears.

      • ian whitehead says:

        Zach Morgan’s book was published last year. Here are the details: Legacy of the Lash: Race and Corporal Punishment in the Brazilian Navy and the Atlantic World, by Zachary R. Morgan, published by the Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indianapolis 2014. ISBN 978-0-253-01420-7

        It is a fascinating study of the context and lead up to the revolt, as well as of the revolt itself and the persecution of the sailors by the government afterwards. I found the interplay of the Brazilian economic and political systems with the warship building capacity of Armstrong of particular interest. But then I suppose you would have expected that!

        regards

        Ian

  2. david garcia says:

    My family was I the navy around that time fleed persecution to the uk and settled in newcastle

    • ian whitehead says:

      Hi David
      I’m very excited to hear that your family fled Brazil after the Revolt of the Lash. That some of them were in the navy and that the family settled in Newcastle makes it more interesting still. It would be fascinating to hear more details of your family’s story, and particularly if the family has photographs or documents from the time.
      Since you posted your comment on the Dazzlepaint and the Revolt of the Lash entries I have also replied on both of them, but if you are going to post again it would be best to stick to the Revolt of the Lash entry. We are probably confusing the dazzle fans!

      Regards

      Ian

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